The mantra and tantra are instruments to invoke higher qualities, often associated with specific Hindu deities such as Shiva, Shakti, or Kali. Similarly, puja may involve focusing with a deity. Each mantra is associated with a specific Nyasa. Nyasa involves touching various parts of the body at specific parts of the mantra, thought to invoke the deity in the body. There are several types of Nyasas; the most important are Kara Nyasa and Anga Nyasa
History: The earliest documented use of the word "Tantra" is in the Rig-Veda (X.71.9). Tantrism originated in the early centuries of the common era, developing into a fully articulated tradition by the end of the Gupta period. This was the "Golden Age of Hinduism" (ca. 320–650 AD), which flourished from the Gupta Empire (320 to 550 AD) to the fall of the Harsha Empire (606 to 647 AD). During this period power was centralized, trade increased, legal procedures standardized and literacy grew. Mahayana Buddhism flourished, but the orthodox Brahmana culture began its rejuvenation with the patronage of the Gupta Dynasty. The position of the Brahmans was reinforced, and the first Hindu temples emerged during the late Gupta period.